segunda-feira, 17 de junho de 2013

Meninas na Física...

     Tenho 10 alunos com bolsa entre Iniciação Cientifica IC, Mestrandos, Doutorandos e Pos-doutorandos. Todos rapazes. Há uma  Sub-representação feminina no grupo, no departamento, na Universidade e nas ciências e isto  tem sido um tema de discussão e pesquisa dentro da comunidade de ensino de ciências por várias décadas. Em particular, a física é a menor comunidade de de todas as ciências  no sentido de atrair e reter mulheres no campo. A Figura 1 mostra a queda na percentagem de mulheres que estudam física nos Estados Unidos, com cada passo na escada acadêmica. Mais de 40% dos estudantes de física do ensino médio, em 1993, eram meninas, mas as mulheres são menos de 20% nos graus de bacharel em Física, cinco anos depois. A maior queda percentual de mulheres que estudam física ocorre entre escola e a universidade. Isso é problemático porque a maioria dos físicos femininos são atraídos para a física e decide estudá-la na escola, de acordo com o Estudo Internacional de Mulheres na Física . 

domingo, 9 de junho de 2013

Como se tornar um astrofísico/astrônomo?

Descobrir como o universo funciona é sem duvida uma experiência incrível e compartilhar essa informação também é uma fonte de muita satisfação. A Astrofísica/Astronomia é uma excelente maneira de participar de um mundo de descobertas. A astronomia é uma área relativamente pequena. Basicamente os pesquisadores Brasileiros ligados a área de Astronomia e Astrofísica são oriundos dos cursos de formaçao em Física. Seguindo a formação é requerido uma pós-graduação, (mestrado e doutorado em Astronomia, Astrofísica ou em Ciências Espaciais).


Become an Astronomer
A paixão por estrelas, planetas, galáxias e pelo  universo em geral além de uma sede de conhecimento por tudo que está lá fora. Isto tudo  pode levá-lo a considerar a astronomia como uma carreira e não apenas como um hobby amador. É uma escolha que pode levá-lo eventualmente a grandes e surpreendentes descobertas sobre o que está lá fora no espaço e ainda sobre tudo  que podemos aprender com ele. Tornar-se um astrônomo ou astrofísico exige dedicação, boa habilidade de estudo, e um foco em atender os prazos e notas nos cursos de formação.


  1. 1
    Telescopes don't bite but the competition can be fierce
     Telescopes don't bite but the competition can be fierce
    Consider the challenges first. Astronomy is a popular field and there is intense competition within it. Moreover, there are not a lot of jobs available, and many of them will be in academia.[1][2] This means that you'll need to be prepared to study very hard, to focus yourself early on the areas you're willing to work in, and to also consider work in related but not necessarily pure astronomical work. However, if you don't give it your best, you won't know your chances, so don't let the challenges stall you before you begin!
    • Be prepared to set aside the time and resources to become as qualified an astronomer as possible. This will usually mean getting postgraduate qualifications on top of your initial degree, adding more time to your overall studies.
  2. 2
    Do well at school if you're starting at this point.
     Do well at school if you're starting at this point.
    Do well at school if you're starting at this point. This means top grades in your final year(s) examination results. Focus in particular onmathematics, physics, and other science subjects, as these are the bedrock of astronomy. In addition, knowing foreign languages, computer science and geography can be helpful.[3] Other skills that it's important to have as an astronomer include:
  3. 3
    Look for a suitable college or university course.
     Look for a suitable college or university course.
    Look for a suitable college or university course. Degrees focused only on astronomy as a first degree course are not common, so you may have to consider moving from where you live, or even applying to an overseas university. Alternatively, speak to the university about the astronomy options that it does offer and work out whether taking courses in mathematics and/orphysics with some astronomy input will be sufficient to enable you to later pursue postgraduate studies in astronomy alone. Talk to the course advisers for more information.
    • Whatever your choice, it is important to aim for the best possible university or college that your school results enable.[5]
  4. 4
    Select suitable degree subjects.
     Select suitable degree subjects.
    Select suitable degree subjects. If you're able to get into a pure astronomy degree, then it's likely that the appropriate subjects will already have been sorted out by the course coordinators. If not, then do a mathematics or physics degree. If possible, add astronomy and/or astrophysics if offered but these can be picked up with higher degrees if need be.[6] Whatever you end up studying, do very well in it.
    • By the time of your postgraduate work, be willing to challenge tradition and the status quo. A great astronomer (who sadly died young), Beatrice Tinsley, is known as one of the greatest creative theoreticians in astronomy and was renowned for her breadth and ability to synergize a great deal of information and see many linkages. Her thesis took 8 years before it was truly accepted because she was so forward thinking in what she discovered but she didn't let this deter her. Be strong in your convictions (and factual bases) about seeing connections and theories others can't.
  5. 5
    Spend time polishing up your computing skills.
     Spend time polishing up your computing skills.
    Spend time polishing up your computing skills. This doesn't mean playing games; it means actual programming skills and understanding the mathematical principles that go into programming.[7]
  6. 6
    It can't hurt to do a lot of self-learning with telescopes
     It can't hurt to do a lot of self-learning with telescopes
    Make astronomy your passion. Even if you're not able to study astronomy as part of your first degree, this is no reason for neglecting to learn as much about it as possible. Read widely in the field, join a local astronomysociety and involve yourself in its activities, and take trips to observatories and science museums. As well, try to meet with real astronomers to talk to them about their jobs. You never know, you might also be able to find vacation work doing mundane but crucial things to help astronomy projects in different parts of the world, so be sure to ask and to keep eye on online astronomy forums for any possibilities that might come up.
    • Look for part-time or vacation positions at university observatories during your semester breaks, even if you're working the till at the entrance. It's all a foot in the door for the keen astronomer.
  7. 7
    Work out which area of astronomy you'd like to dedicate your career work to.
     Work out which area of astronomy you'd like to dedicate your career work to.
    Work out which area of astronomy you'd like to dedicate your career work to. As you become more and more specialized through your astronomy studies and experience, you'll need to choose the area of greatest interest to you. Generally, astronomers will specialize in such fields as planetary science, solar astronomy, the origin and evolution of stars, and the formation of galaxies.[8]
    • Even with specialization, there is no such thing as a "typical day" for an astronomer, as work can vary broadly including looking through telescopes, using computers to model theories, doing research, talking to other astronomers, educating the public, visiting other observatories, analyzing data, and attending meetings or conferences.[9]


In this video, you have the opportunity to see what it's like to be an astronomer doing a visit to another observatory to collect data.


  • Learn early on how to write grant proposals. It's highly likely that this will be a fair proportion of your work!
  • Being a "night owl" is a benefit!
  • Maintain good physical fitness and optimal nutrition. Star-gazing is harder work than it might seem and staring into telescopes can bring about muscle aches you've never experienced before!

  • Check out the lists of national astronomy associations to find the names of the people who are important in the field, to see which college or university they went to, or to understand their career path.[10]
  • Unlike other science subjects, it's a lot harder to interact with the objects you're studying. You can't touch a star, cannot visit a nebula, can't be close to a planet. You will need to learn a lot from observing the electromagnetic spectrum (hence the reason for physics), and from understanding the general principles of mathematics and science, especially physics. You will need to be very comfortable with research, computer modeling, and testing hypotheses endlessly.[11]
  • It is thought that the best papers written by astronomers are in the age group 40-50.[12] This gives you much time to be evolving your theories and testing them.